What are RICKETS?

Rickets is a skeletal disorder that results from a lack of vitamin D, calcium, or phosphate. These nutrients are important for the development of strong, healthy bones. People with rickets can have weak and soft bones, stunted growth, and, in severe cases, skeletal deformities.

Hypophosphatemic rickets is a form of rickets that is characterized by low serum phosphate levels and resistance to treatment with ultraviolet radiation or vitamin D ingestion. The term rickets evolved from the old English word wrick, which means “to twist.” This twisting or bending of the bones has been known to physicians since antiquity and, as with many diseases, was gradually found to encompass more than a single etiology.

J Neurosurg Pediatr. 2016 Jan 29:1-7. [Epub ahead of print]

Hypophosphatemic rickets and craniosynostosis: a multicenter case series.
Vega RA1, Opalak C1, Harshbarger RJ2, Fearon JA3, Ritter AM1, Collins JJ1, Rhodes JL4.
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Abstract

OBJECTIVE This study examines a series of patients with hypophosphatemic rickets and craniosynostosis to characterize the clinical course and associated craniofacial anomalies. METHODS A 20-year retrospective review identified patients with hypophosphatemic rickets and secondary craniosynostosis at 3 major craniofacial centers. Parameters examined included sex, age at diagnosis of head shape anomaly, affected sutures, etiology of rickets, presenting symptoms, number and type of surgical interventions, and associated diagnoses. A review of the literature was performed to optimize treatment recommendations. RESULTS Ten patients were identified (8 males, 2 females). Age at presentation ranged from 1 to 9 years. The most commonly affected suture was the sagittal (6/10 patients).

Etiologies included antacid-induced rickets, autosomal dominant hypophosphatemic rickets, and X-linked hypophosphatemic (XLH) rickets. Nine patients had undergone at least 1 cranial vault remodeling (CVR) surgery. Three patients underwent subsequent surgeries in later years. Four patients underwent formal intracranial pressure (ICP) monitoring, 3 of which revealed elevated ICP. Three patients were diagnosed with a Chiari Type I malformation. CONCLUSIONS Secondary craniosynostosis develops postnatally due to metabolic or mechanical factors. The most common metabolic cause is hypophosphatemic rickets, which has a variety of etiologies. Head shape changes occur later and with a more heterogeneous presentation compared with that of primary craniosynostosis. CVR may be required to prevent or relieve elevated ICP and abnormalities of the cranial vault. Children with hypophosphatemic rickets who develop head shape abnormalities should be promptly referred to a craniofacial specialist.

KEYWORDS:
CM = Chiari malformation; CM-I = CM Type I; CVR = cranial vault remodeling; FGF23 = fibroblast growth factor 23; ICP = intracranial pressure; XLH = X-linked hypophosphatemic; craniofacial surgery; craniosynostosis; hypophosphatemia; rickets